Automated Linux From Scratch for MahiroOS
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      The scripts in this directory implement an automation of the building
   of a GNU/LInux system, as described in the Linux From Scratch book series.
   The name of the project is jhalfs: in that name, "alfs" stands for
   "automated linux from scratch", and the initials "jh" have been kept since
   the original "jhalfs-0.2" code developed by Jeremy Huntwork.

      The list of supported books can be found at (maybe outdated,
   current develoment books and latest version are always supported).

      The documentation is split among various README.* files. Here is a list
   of what is in which:
      - README (this file): instructions to use the LFS book. This should be
        enough if you just want to build a base system as per the LFS book. It
        is also a required reading for all the other projects.
      - README.BLFS: instructions to install an automated build infrastructure
        for the BLFS book. There are two ways to do so: (i) install the
        tools at the end of an LFS build, or
        (ii) install the tools on an already running system. Both methods are
        described in that file.
      - README.CUSTOM: instructions to run custom commands either during the LFS
        build, or at the end of a LFS build. Note that you will not find
        instructions on how to write those commands, but some examples are
      - README.PACKAGE_MANAGEMENT: instructions to use package management during
        the build (Note: the only package manager that is regularly tested is

      Other sources of information are the context help in the menu interface,
   and the LFS books themselves (both required readings of course!).


      It is strongly advised that you first build manually a complete system
   before attempting to automate the build.

      Of course the "Host System Requirements" should be fulfilled. Some
   supplementary packages are needed for using jhalfs. They are detailed
   at the bottom of the page: In short, you need
   wget, sudo, libxml2, libxslt, docbook-4.5-xml, and docbook-xsl-nons.


      No installation is required. You may want to move the files in this
   directory to a convenient location, and then follow the instructions below.


         There is no configuration of the tools themselves. The various
      parameters for the build are set through a menu driven interface. See
      the section RUNNING below for details.

         This tool has no support at all for creating a partition and a mount
      point for the built system. You should follow the book up to the section
      "Mounting the new partition". Note that the default name for the
      partition mount point is "/mnt/build_dir", instead of /mnt/lfs.
      You can change that default to anything you'd like in the menu, so you
      may name it /mnt/lfs if you prefer . We'll use the name /mnt/build_dir
      in the sequel.

         For downloading packages, you can use the tool or download them
      yourself. Even if using the tool, it is recommended to set up a source
      repository where you store already downloaded packages. The tool will
      automatically search a package in this repository before downloading it
      if it is not found there. This repository cannot be the same as
      /mnt/build_dir/sources. As an example, we'll use /usr/src. You should
      arrange for the user running the tool to have write access to this

         If you want to build the kernel as part of the automated build,
      a configuration file must be provided. In order to do so, it is
      recommended to download the kernel tarball, unpack it, run
      <make menuconfig> (or any other *config), configure the kernel as per
      the book, and save the resulting .config file to a location where it can
      be retrieved later on. It is suggested to put it into the source
      repository, with a versioned name, e.g.
      /usr/src/config-<arch>-<kernel version>-<config details>.

         Another file you may provide is the fstab file. As for the kernel
      configuration, this file has to be prepared before running the menu.
      You can copy-paste the file from the "Creating the /etc/fstab File"
      page, then edit to suit the future lfs system layout, then save the
      file. A convenient location and name is /usr/src/fstablfs.

         At a more advanced level, you may want to supply custom commands
      to be run at the end of LFS build. Scripts containing those commands
      are located in the ./custom/config directory. Examples are given in
      ./custom/examples. A template is provided as ./custom/template. See
      README.CUSTOM for more details.


         You must be logged as a normal user with sudo privileges to run
      the Makefile. Furthermore, you are supposed to have enough privilege
      to become any user. If you are not bothered about security issues,
      the entry for the user running the tool in /etc/sudoers could be
      <user> ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:ALL

      The command <make> will launch a menu based configuration program,
   similar to the kernel "menuconfig" configuration tool.

      Help on parameter function is available from the on-line help (type the
   character `?' after highlighting the parameter). Please do use the help:
   it may contain additional information not duplicated in this file.

   MENU "BOOK Settings"

      Use BOOK: You have three choices: LFS System V, LFS systemd, BLFS.
         The BLFS part is described in README.BLFS

      Book version: You have two choices: "Branch" or "Working Copy"
         Branch will have the tool clone the book's git repository. The
      choice of the branch (actually any git commit) or of the file
      location for the working copy is done in the next menu entry.

      Multilib: Four choices: Normal LFS, Multilib with i686 libraries,
      multilib with x32 libraries, multilib with all libraries.
         It is recommended to use "Normal LFS" unless you know what you
      are doing

      Build method: two choices: chroot (as in book), boot
         Presently, the "boot" method is not implemented, so keep the default.

      Add blfs-tools support (see README.BLFS)
         This will install the blfs tools onto the newly built system. It
      is not the same thing as choosing the BLFS book in the menu, which
      will install the blfs tools on the currently running system.

      Add custom tools support (see README.CUSTOM)

   MENU "General Settings"

      Build Directory: the name of the root of the LFS system
         This is the equivalent of the LFS variable in the book. Set it
      to "/mnt/lfs" if you have followed the book for creating the LFS
      partition and mount point.

      Retrieve source files: Say y to have jhalfs download the packages
         If you say no, you must download the packages yourself and put
      them into the /mnt/build_dir/sources directory. Follow book's
      chapter 3 instructions.
         If you say yes, you'll be asked several other questions:
         - Package Archive Directory: Repository of downloaded packages
            This directory, which is on the host and should be writable
         by the user running the tool, is for storing downloaded packages.
            If you keep the default "$SRC_ARCHIVE", you can set this variable
         to the absolute path of the repository and export it. Or if the
         variable is not set, jhalfs downloads the sources directly to
            Instead of using the SRC_ARCHIVE envar, you can also enter the
         path of the repository directory into this field.
         - Retry on 'connection refused' failure: self explanatory
         - Number of retry attempts on download failures: self explanatory
         - Download timeout (in seconds): self explanatory

      Run the makefile: start the build immediately after running the tool
         This is not the preferred method: it is recommended to rather
      run "make -C /mnt/build_dir/jhalfs" after the tool has finished
      setting up the build. But this may be handy if you are sure everything
      is well, and want to leave the tool and the build run without

      Rebuild files: clean up the /mnt/build_dir directory
         Say n if you want to rerun the tool (to update generated scripts
      for example) without removing what has already been done. Otherwise,
      say y. Note that there are some guards against removing a directory
      containing useful things, but double check that the /mnt/build_dir
      directory is really what you want to erase.

   MENU "Build Settings"

      MENU Parallelism settings
       - Use all cores:
            If you say y, MAKEFLAGS will be set to "-j$(nproc)" at the
         beginning of each script. Other envars are supposed to be passed
         from the environment, as done in new books. Note that for old books,
         this means the scripts using make or ninja will be run with all
         cores, but not when this needs to set special envars like
         TESTSUITEFLAGS. You can still define the number of cores used
         in next field.
            If you say n, you'll be asked for a static number of threads
         to use.
       - set of cpus to use, or 'all' for all cpus (only if using all cores):
            You can define here the cores you want to use. See help for
         details. This is the preferred way of reducing the number of cores
         rather than using a static thread number.
       - Number of parallel `make' jobs (only if not using all cores):
            Every occurrence of $(nproc) in new books will be replaced with
         the number entered here. Also MAKEFLAGS will be set to "-jN" (where
         N is the number entered) at the beginning of each scripts. Furthermore
         NINJAJOBS will be set to N in the environment. This allows to run all
         books with N threads, except for paarts that need other envars to be
       - Build Binutils pass1 without parallelism (Real SBU)
            The standard SBU is defined as the time to run the binutils-pass1
         build with only one thread. Saying y here allows to get a value for
         it. If you say n, the value is not meaningful for SBU measurements.

      Run testsuites: say y to run the test suites
         You'll have the choice between running all the test suites, or only
      those deemed critical (binutils, gmp, mpfr, mpc, and gcc).

      Package management: see README.PACKAGE_MANAGEMENT

      Create a log of installed files for each package: self explanatory

      Strip Installed Binaries/Libraries: use the book instructions for

      DO NOT use/display progress_bar (self explanatory)

   MENU System configuration

      Use a custom fstab file:
         If you say y, you'll have to provide a file containing the fstab
      for the LFS system. See above "preliminary tasks".

      Build the kernel:
         If you say y, you'll be asked for a file containing the kernel
      configuration. See above "preliminary tasks".

      Install non-wide-character ncurses (rarely used nowadays):
         If you say y, the system will use instructions in the note on the
      ncurses page to install those libraries.

      TimeZone: set to the result of "tzselect"

      Language: set to the result of the instructions on "The Bash Shell
      Startup Files" page.

      Install the full set of locales: installs all the locales known to

      Groff page size: choice between "A4" and "Letter".

      Hostname: self explanatory

      Network configuration: various fields for setting network. Look at
      chapter 9 for background.

      Console configuration: various fields for setting console, as described
      in chapter 9.

   MENU Advanced features:

      Optimization: Optimization settings are done by editing files in the
      "optimize" directory. The menu just allows you to choose between applying
      optimizations only to the final chapter or to all the book. Say n for
      a normal build

      Create SBU and disk usage report: self explanatory

      Save temporary system work: self explanatory (see help)

      Run comparison analysis on final stage: build the system several times
      using the preceding one, to test whether it is able to rebuild itself
      identically. Don't use normally...

      Internal Settings (WARNING: for jhalfs developers only): says it all

     Once you have set the parameters and saved the configuration, the script
  is launched. Its aim is to extract instructions from the selected book
  to generate scripts, and to generate a Makefile, which allows running
  the scripts in the right order. The script verifies first that the host
  can run itself and build the xLFS system, then validates the configuration
  and lists the parameters. At this point, you may choose to quit or to
  continue with the listed parameters. The script will then proceed to
  generate the Makefile and the build scripts, optionally download
  packages, and eventually verify the host prerequisite. If you have
  selected "Run the makefile", the command <make> is launched in the
  adequate directory, and the build begins. If not, you'll have to run
  "make" manually, for example: "make -C /mnt/build_dir/jhalfs", if you
  have used the default parameters (see the layout under $BUILDDIR in the
  Q&A below).

      If you run the jhalfs script directly the only function you can select
      is to display the version number by running <./jhalfs -v>


        /BLFS/* (see README.BLFS)



               /config/* (needs to be created after cloning since it is an
                          empty directory initially)






7. FAQ::
    Q. "It doesn't work"
    A. There are several reasons why it may be so. One possibility is the
       following: jhalfs was designed to work against the development versions
       of the LFS series of books. Consequently changes in a book sometimes
       break older versions of jhalfs. Before you start pulling out your hair,
       download the latest version of jhalfs to see if that solves your
       problem. Note that it may be the other way around. If you want to build
       an old version of the book, you may have to downgrade your jhalfs

    Q. "How do I specify the build location?"
    A. The original LFS document worked against the well known location
       /mnt/lfs. This script automates the build of all of the LFS series of
       books and uses a generic location $BUILDDIR with a default value of
       /mnt/build_dir. You may change this value to suit your needs.

       The layout below $BUILDDIR is as follows.
            jhalfs      (Makefile, cmd scripts, logs, etc..)
            sources     (where packages reside)
            tools       (temporary cross compiler)
            FHS dir structure
            blfs_root   (files to use blfs-tool if selected to install it)

    Q. "What is the function of the SRC_ARCHIVE variable?"
    A. When jhalfs runs and packages download was selected, it creates a local
       copy of the necessary packages in $BUILDDIR/sources by downloading the
       files. If the variable SRC_ARCHIVE is defined the software will first
       look in this location for the file and, if found, will copy it to
       If the files are not found in SRC_ARCHIVE _and_ you have write priv to
       the directory any downloaded files will be mirrored there.

    Q. "How do I set the SRC_ARCHIVE location?"
    A. The best way to set the value of SRC_ARCHIVE is

       export SRC_ARCHIVE=/wherever/you/store/downloaded/packages

       or you can set the full path in the proper menu entry.

    Q. "Why have 2 copies of the files?"
    A. The package files must be visible during the chroot phase and this is a
       simple and reliable method of doing so. This method also handles the
       boot build method where the final build may be done on a separate

    Q. "How could I stop the build at a predefined chosen point?"
    A. Launch the Makefile manually passing the last numbered target to be build
       as the break point. For example:

          make BREAKPOINT=84-bash

       The build can be stopped also at the end of a top-level build phase by
       calling directly the appropriate mk_* target. For example:

          make mk_LUSER

       See the Makefile to know the proper target names for that book build.

  George Boudreau
  Manuel Canales Esparcia
  Pierre Labastie